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Heath L,Gray SL,Boudreau DM,Thummel K,Edwards KL,Fullerton SM,Crane PK,Larson EB
Cumulative Antidepressant Use and Risk of Dementia in a Prospective Cohort Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 Sep 17;
To determine whether antidepressant use is associated with dementia risk.
PMID: 30221747

Mohammed S,Flores L,Deveau J,Hoffing RC,Phung C,Parlett CM,Sheehan E,Lee D,Au J,Buschkuehl M,Zordan V,Jaeggi SM,Seitz AR
The Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Motivational Features to Boost Cognitive Training Outcome.
J Cogn Enhanc. 2017 Dec;1(4):491-507
In the current literature, there are a number of cognitive training studies that use N-back tasks as their training vehicle; however, the interventions are often bland, and many studies suffer from considerable attrition rates. An increasingly common approach to increase participant engagement has been the implementation of motivational features in training tasks; yet, the effects of such "gamification" on learning have been inconsistent. To shed more light on those issues, here, we report the results of a training study conducted at two Universities in Southern California. A total of 115 participants completed 4 weeks (20 sessions) of N-back training in the laboratory. We varied the amount of "gamification" and the motivational features that might make the training more engaging and, potentially, more effective. Thus, 47 participants trained on a basic color/identity N-back version with no motivational features, whereas 68 participants trained on a gamified version that translated the basic mechanics of the N-back task into an engaging 3D space-themed "collection" game (Deveau et al. , , 243, 2015). Both versions used similar adaptive algorithms to increase the difficulty level as participants became more proficient. Participants' self-reports indicated that the group who trained on the gamified version enjoyed the intervention more than the group who trained on the non-gamified version. Furthermore, the participants who trained on the gamified version exerted more effort and also improved more during training. However, despite the differential training effects, there were no significant group differences in any of the outcome measures at post-test, suggesting that the inclusion of motivational features neither substantially benefited nor hurt broader learning. Overall, our findings provide guidelines for task implementation to optimally target participants' interest and engagement to promote learning, which may lead to broader adoption and adherence of cognitive training.
PMID: 30221244

Hirschberg H,Berg K,Peng Q
Photodynamic therapy mediated immune therapy of brain tumors.
Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2018;5
Photodynamic therapy of tumors requires the topical, systemic or oral administration of a photosensitizing compound, illumination of the tumor area by light of a specific wavelength and the presence of oxygen. Light activation of the photosensitizer transfers energy to molecular oxygen creating singlet oxygen, a highly reactive and toxic species that rapidly reacts with cellular components causing oxidative damage, ultimately leading to cell death. Tumor destruction caused by photodynamic therapy is not only a result of direct tumor cell toxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species but there is also an immunological and vascular component involved. The immune response to photodynamic therapy has been demonstrated to significantly enhance its efficacy. Depending on a number of factors, including type of photosensitizer, light dose and dose rate, photodynamic therapy has been shown to induce cell death via apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and in particular immunogenic cell death. It is the purpose of this review to focus mainly on the role photodynamic therapy could play in the generation of specific anti-tumor immunity and vaccines for the treatment of brain tumors.
PMID: 30221185

Jaeggi SM,Shah P
Editorial Special Topic: Neuroscience, Learning, and Educational Practice-Challenges, Promises, and Applications.
AERA Open. 4(1)
There is growing interest in the contributions of neuroscience to educational practice; however, to date, neuroscience seems to have had little impact on education. Nonetheless, neuroscience has potential value for education on several fronts, as illustrated by the articles in this Special Topic. These articles provide excellent examples for how neuroscientific approaches can complement behavioral work, and they demonstrate how understanding the neural level can help researchers develop richer models of learning and development. These articles further show that, ideally, research efforts in neuroscience and education should be reciprocal. Specifically, education should encourage psychology and neuroscience to develop learning theories that are relevant in the real world and further improve our understanding of how specific instructional practices affect learning and achievement; in turn, psychology and neuroscience can provide insights into underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms of learning, with the overall goal to maximize human potential and learning for all.
PMID: 30221180

Wu SC,Benavente CA
Chromatin remodeling protein HELLS is upregulated by inactivation of the RB-E2F pathway and is nonessential for osteosarcoma tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2018 Aug 24;9(66):32580-32592
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Among the various molecular mechanisms implicated in osteosarcomagenesis, the RB-E2F pathway is of particular importance as virtually all cases of osteosarcoma display alterations in the RB-E2F pathway. In this study, we examined the transcription factor E2F family members that are associated with increased malignancy in -null osteosarcoma tumors. Using genetically engineered mouse models of osteosarcoma, we found that loss of activator E2Fs, E2F1 and E2F3, significantly delays tumor progression and increases the overall survival of the -deficient osteosarcoma mouse model. We also studied the role of helicase, lymphoid specific (HELLS), a chromatin remodeling protein identified as a critical downstream effector of the RB-E2F signaling pathway in various cancers. In this study, we confirmed that the RB-E2F pathway directly regulates gene expression. We also found that mRNA is upregulated and its protein overexpressed in osteosarcoma. Using loss-of-function assays to study the role of HELLS in human osteosarcoma, we observed that HELLS has no effect on tumor proliferation and migration. Further, we pioneered the study of in developmental tumor models by generating Hells conditional knockout osteosarcoma mouse models to examine the role of HELLS in osteosarcoma tumor development. We found that loss of in osteosarcoma has no effect in tumor initiation and overall survival of mice. This suggests that while HELLS may serve as a biomarker for tumorigenesis and for RB-E2F pathway status, it is unlikely to serve as a relevant target for therapeutics in osteosarcoma.
PMID: 30220967

Wang Y,Ombao H,Chung MK
Topological Data Analysis of Single-Trial Electroencephalographic Signals.
Ann Appl Stat. 2018 Sep;12(3):1506-1534
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that can negatively affect the visual, audial and motor functions of the human brain. Statistical analysis of neurophysiological recordings, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), facilitates the understanding and diagnosis of epileptic seizures. Standard statistical methods, however, do not account for topological features embedded in EEG signals. In the current study, we propose a persistent homology (PH) procedure to analyze single-trial EEG signals. The procedure denoises signals with a weighted Fourier series (WFS), and tests for topological difference between the denoised signals with a permutation test based on their PH features persistence landscapes (PL). Simulation studies show that the test effectively identifies topological difference and invariance between two signals. In an application to a single-trial multichannel seizure EEG dataset, our proposed PH procedure was able to identify the left temporal region to consistently show topological invariance, suggesting that the PH features of the Fourier decomposition during seizure is similar to the process before seizure. This finding is important because it could not be identified from a mere visual inspection of the EEG data and was in fact missed by earlier analyses of the same dataset.
PMID: 30220953

Sang LJ,Ju HQ,Liu GP,Tian T,Ma GL,Lu YX,Liu ZX,Pan RL,Li RH,Piao HL,Marks JR,Yang LJ,Yan Q,Wang W,Shao J,Zhou Y,Zhou T,Lin A
LncRNA CamK-A Regulates Ca-Signaling-Mediated Tumor Microenvironment Remodeling.
Mol Cell. 2018 Sep 10;
Cancer cells entail metabolic adaptation and microenvironmental remodeling to survive and progress. Both calcium (Ca) flux and Ca-dependent signaling play a crucial role in this process, although the underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Through RNA screening, we identified one long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) named CamK-A (lncRNA for calcium-dependent kinase activation) in tumorigenesis. CamK-A is highly expressed in multiple human cancers and involved in cancer microenvironment remodeling via activation of Ca-triggered signaling. Mechanistically, CamK-A activates Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase PNCK, which in turn phosphorylates I?Ba and triggers calcium-dependent nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation. This regulation results in the tumor microenvironment remodeling, including macrophage recruitment, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Notably, our human-patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model studies demonstrate that targeting CamK-A robustly impaired cancer development. Clinically, CamK-A expression coordinates with the activation of CaMK-NF-?B axis, and its high expression indicates poor patient survival rate, suggesting its role as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target.
PMID: 30220561

Saez I,Lin J,Stolk A,Chang E,Parvizi J,Schalk G,Knight RT,Hsu M
Encoding of Multiple Reward-Related Computations in Transient and Sustained High-Frequency Activity in Human OFC.
Curr Biol. 2018 Aug 18;
Human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in value-based decision making. In recent years, convergent evidence from human and model organisms has further elucidated its role in representing reward-related computations underlying decision making. However, a detailed description of these processes remains elusive due in part to (1) limitations in our ability to observe human OFC neural dynamics at the timescale of decision processes and (2) methodological and interspecies differences that make it challenging to connect human and animal findings or to resolve discrepancies when they arise. Here, we sought to address these challenges by conducting multi-electrode electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings in neurosurgical patients during economic decision making to elucidate the electrophysiological signature, sub-second temporal profile, and anatomical distribution of reward-related computations within human OFC. We found that high-frequency activity (HFA) (70-200 Hz) reflected multiple valuation components grouped in two classes of valuation signals that were dissociable in temporal profile and information content: (1) fast, transient responses reflecting signals associated with choice and outcome processing, including anticipated risk and outcome regret, and (2) sustained responses explicitly encoding what happened in the immediately preceding trial. Anatomically, these responses were widely distributed in partially overlapping networks, including regions in the central OFC (Brodmann areas 11 and 13), which have been consistently implicated in reward processing in animal single-unit studies. Together, these results integrate insights drawn from human and animal studies and provide evidence for a role of human OFC in representing multiple reward computations.
PMID: 30220499

Renaud EJ,Sømme S,Islam S,Cameron DB,Gates RL,Williams RF,Jancelewicz T,Oyetunji TA,Grabowski J,Diefenbach KA,Baird R,Arnold MA,Lal DR,Shelton J,Guner YS,Gosain A,Kawaguchi AL,Ricca RL,Goldin AB,Dasgupta R
Ovarian masses in the child and adolescent: An American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Evidence-Based Practice Committee systematic review.
J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Sep 06;
The treatment of ovarian masses in pediatric patients should balance appropriate surgical management with the preservation of future reproductive capability. Preoperative estimation of malignant potential is essential to planning an optimal surgical strategy.
PMID: 30220452

Santos RA,Fuertes AJC,Short G,Donohue KC,Shao H,Quintanilla J,Malakzadeh P,Cohen-Cory S
DSCAM differentially modulates pre- and postsynaptic structural and functional central connectivity during visual system wiring.
Neural Dev. 2018 Sep 15;13(1):22
Proper patterning of dendritic and axonal arbors is a critical step in the formation of functional neuronal circuits. Developing circuits rely on an array of molecular cues to shape arbor morphology, but the underlying mechanisms guiding the structural formation and interconnectivity of pre- and postsynaptic arbors in real time remain unclear. Here we explore how Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) differentially shapes the dendritic morphology of central neurons and their presynaptic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing vertebrate visual system.
PMID: 30219101

Mallory JD,Mandelshtam VA
Quantum-induced solid-solid transitions and melting in the Lennard-Jones LJ cluster.
J Chem Phys. 2018 Sep 14;149(10):104305
The solid-solid and melting transitions that occur in Lennard-Jones LJ clusters have been both fascinating and challenging for the computational physics community over the last several decades. A number of attempts to extend these studies to the quantum case have also been made. Particularly interesting is the exploration of the parallel between the thermally induced and quantum-induced transitions. Yet, both numerically accurate and systematic studies of the latter are still lacking. In this paper, we apply the diffusion Monte Carlo method to the especially difficult case of LJ. Starting with the truncated octahedral global minimum configuration, as the de Boer quantum delocalization parameter ? increases, the system undergoes two consecutive solid-solid transitions, switching to anti-Mackay configurations. At sufficiently large values of ?, the cluster is completely "melted," which is manifested by delocalization of the ground state wavefunction over a very large number of minima that represent several structural motifs.
PMID: 30219003

Amber KT,Chernyavsky A,Agnoletti AF,Cozzani E,Grando SA
Mechanisms of Pathogenic Effects of Eosinophil Cationic Protein and Eosinophil Derived Neurotoxin on Human Keratinocytes.
Exp Dermatol. 2018 Sep 15;
Cutaneous deposition of eosinophil degranulation proteins is a major feature of eosinophil rich cutaneous diseases including bullous pemphigoid (BP). We sought to better understand the effect of two of these proteins -eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), on human keratinocytes using the Het-1A cell line. To evaluate expression of key cytokines and chemokines observed in BP as well as metal metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), we performed qPCR and in-cell Western assays on cells treated with either ECP or EDN. We further evaluated the effect of ECP and EDN on keratinocyte survival, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Lastly, we assessed ECP and EDN's ability to induce keratinocyte detachment from provisional matrix. Treatment of keratinocytes with ECP and EDN resulted in significant increases in IL-5, eotaxin-1 and CCL5 (RANTES) expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but not IL-17 or IL-31. ECP and EDN also upregulate MMP9 production. Inhibiting MMP9, we confirmed that keratinocyte expression of IL-5, eotaxin-1, and RANTES was independent from MMP9. Both ECP and EDN were cytotoxic to keratinocytes, inducing ROS formation and apoptosis through a mitochondrion-dependent pathway as evidenced by results of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and cytochrome c release assays, respectively. ECP but not EDN led to significant keratinocyte detachment from provisional matrix. These findings demonstrate that the pathogenic effects of ECP and EDN in BP may result from their direct action on keratinocytes, and as such may became a target for future therapies in eosinophil rich cutaneous diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 30218612

Hayakawa CK,Karrobi K,Pera V,Roblyer D,Venugopalan V
Optical sampling depth in the spatial frequency domain.
J Biomed Opt. 2018 Sep;24(7):1-14
We present a Monte Carlo (MC) method to determine depth-dependent probability distributions of photon visitation and detection for optical reflectance measurements performed in the spatial frequency domain (SFD). These distributions are formed using an MC simulation for radiative transport that utilizes a photon packet weighting procedure consistent with the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform of the radiative transport equation. This method enables the development of quantitative metrics for SFD optical sampling depth in layered tissue and its dependence on both tissue optical properties and spatial frequency. We validate the computed depth-dependent probability distributions using SFD measurements in a layered phantom system with a highly scattering top layer of variable thickness supported by a highly absorbing base layer. We utilize our method to establish the spatial frequency-dependent optical sampling depth for a number of tissue types and also provide a general tool to determine such depths for tissues of arbitrary optical properties.
PMID: 30218504

Perret D,Sunico R,Knowlton T,Kezar L,Worsowicz G,Whyte J
The State of the States: Growing Physiatry: Association of Academic Physiatrists Position Statement Addressing Academic Physiatry and PM&R Growth.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2018 Sep 13;
The growth of physiatry in the United States is dependent upon academic exposure at both the undergraduate and graduate medical education levels. Undergraduate medical education provides students with knowledge of physiatry, as well as proper understanding of human function, medical rehabilitation treatments, and of physiatrists as consultants. Graduate medical education contributes more directly to the total number of practicing physiatrists. This paper presents disparities in medical student exposure to physiatry, PM&R residency positions, the number of practicing physiatrists, and PM&R-relevant patient care needs, by state. In the model, these disparities are highlighted to provide guidance and expose gaps/opportunities for targeted physiatric growth.
PMID: 30216212

Said HM,Nexo E
Gastrointestinal Handling of Water-Soluble Vitamins.
Compr Physiol. 2018 Sep 14;8(4):1291-1311
Nine compounds are classified as water-soluble vitamins, eight B vitamins and one vitamin C. The vitamins are mandatory for the function of numerous enzymes and lack of one or more of the vitamins may lead to severe medical conditions. All the vitamins are supplied by food in microgram to milligram quantities and in addition some of the vitamins are synthesized by the intestinal microbiota. In the gastrointestinal tract, the vitamins are liberated from binding proteins and for some of the vitamins modified prior to absorption. Due to their solubility in water, they all require specific carriers to be absorbed. Our current knowledge concerning each of the vitamins differs in depth and focus and is influenced by the prevalence of conditions and diseases related to lack of the individual vitamin. Because of that we have chosen to cover slightly different aspects for the individual vitamins. For each of the vitamins, we summarize the physiological role, the steps involved in the absorption, and the factors influencing the absorption. In addition, for some of the vitamins, the molecular base for absorption is described in details, while for others new aspects of relevance for human deficiency are included. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:1291-1311, 2018.
PMID: 30215865

Cao H,McEwen SC,Chung Y,Chén OY,Bearden CE,Addington J,Goodyear B,Cadenhead KS,Mirzakhanian H,Cornblatt BA,Carrión RE,Mathalon DH,McGlashan TH,Perkins DO,Belger A,Seidman LJ,Thermenos H,Tsuang MT,van Erp TGM,Walker EF,Hamann S,Anticevic A,Woods SW,Cannon TD
Altered Brain Activation During Memory Retrieval Precedes and Predicts Conversion to Psychosis in Individuals at Clinical High Risk.
Schizophr Bull. 2018 Sep 11;
Memory deficits are a hallmark of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, whether the neural dysfunction underlying these deficits is present before the onset of illness and potentially predicts conversion to psychosis is unclear. In this study, we investigated brain functional alterations during memory processing in a sample of 155 individuals at clinical high risk (including 18 subjects who later converted to full psychosis) and 108 healthy controls drawn from the second phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-2). All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with a paired-associate memory paradigm at the point of recruitment and were clinically followed up for approximately 2 years. We found that at baseline, subjects at high risk showed significantly higher activation during memory retrieval in the prefrontal, parietal, and bilateral temporal cortices (PFWE < .035). This effect was more pronounced in converters than nonconverters and was particularly manifested in unmedicated subjects (P < .001). The hyperactivation was significantly correlated with retrieval reaction time during scan in converters (P = .009) but not in nonconverters and controls, suggesting an exaggerated retrieval effort. These findings suggest that hyperactivation during memory retrieval may mark processes associated with conversion to psychosis, and such measures have potential as biomarkers for psychosis prediction.
PMID: 30215784

Swales DA,Grande LA,Wing DA,Edelmann M,Glynn LM,Sandman C,Smith R,Bowman M,Davis EP
Can Placental Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Inform Timing of Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration?
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Sep 11;
Antenatal corticosteroids commonly are administered to pregnant women at risk of delivering between 23 and 34 gestational weeks, providing crucial benefits to fetal lung maturation and reducing risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Corticosteroids are maximally efficacious for lung maturation when administered within 2 to 7 days of delivery. Accurately identifying the timing of preterm delivery is thus critical to ensure that antenatal corticosteroids are administered within a week of delivery and to avoid unnecessary administration to women who will deliver at term. A plausible biomarker for predicting time of delivery is placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (pCRH).
PMID: 30215731

Gadgeel S,Peters S,Mok T,Shaw AT,Kim DW,Ou SI,Pérol M,Wrona A,Novello S,Rosell R,Zeaiter A,Liu T,Nüesch E,Balas B,Camidge DR
Alectinib versus crizotinib in treatment-naïve anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer: CNS efficacy results from the ALEX study.
Ann Oncol. 2018 Sep 12;
The phase III ALEX study in patients with treatment-naïve advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), met its primary endpoint of improved progression-free survival (PFS) with alectinib versus crizotinib. Here we present detailed central nervous system (CNS) efficacy data from ALEX.
PMID: 30215676

Aaboud M,Aad G,Abbott B,Abdinov O,Abeloos B,Abidi SH,AbouZeid OS,Abraham NL,Abramowicz H,Abreu H,Abulaiti Y,Acharya BS,Adachi S,Adamczyk L,Adelman J,Adersberger M,Adye T,Affolder AA,Afik Y,Agheorghiesei C,Aguilar-Saavedra JA,Ahmadov F,Aielli G,Akatsuka S,Åkesson TPA,Akilli E,Akimov AV,Alberghi GL,Albert J,Albicocco P,AlconadaVerzini MJ,Alderweireldt S,Aleksa M,Aleksandrov IN,Alexa C,Alexander G,Alexopoulos T,Alhroob M,Ali B,Aliev M,Alimonti G,Alison J,Alkire SP,Allaire C,Allbrooke BMM,Allen BW,Allport PP,Aloisio A,Alonso A,Alonso F,Alpigiani C,Alshehri AA,Alstaty MI,AlvarezGonzalez B,ÁlvarezPiqueras D,Alviggi MG,Amadio BT,AmaralCoutinho Y,Ambroz L,Amelung C,Amidei D,Amor DosSantos SP,Amoroso S,Amrouche CS,Anastopoulos C,Ancu LS,Andari N,Andeen T,Anders CF,Anders JK,Anderson KJ,Andreazza A,Andrei V,Angelidakis S,Angelozzi I,Angerami A,Anisenkov AV,Annovi A,Antel C,Anthony MT,Antonelli M,Antrim DJA,Anulli F,Aoki M,Aperio Bella L,Arabidze G,Arai Y,Araque JP,AraujoFerraz V,Pereira RA,Arce ATH,Ardell RE,Arduh FA,Arguin JF,Argyropoulos S,Armbruster AJ,Armitage LJ,Arnaez O,Arnold H,Arratia M,Arslan O,Artamonov A,Artoni G,Artz S,Asai S,Asbah N,Ashkenazi A,Asimakopoulou EM,Asquith L,Assamagan K,Astalos R,Atkin RJ,Atkinson M,Atlay NB,Augsten K,Avolio G,Avramidou R,Axen B,Ayoub MK,Azuelos G,Baas AE,Baca MJ,Bachacou H,Bachas K,Backes M,Bagnaia P,Bahmani M,Bahrasemani H,Bailey AJ,Baines JT,Bajic M,Baker OK,Bakker PJ,Gupta DB,Baldin EM,Balek P,Balli F,Balunas WK,Banas E,Bandyopadhyay A,Banerjee S,Bannoura AAE,Barak L,Barbe WM,Barberio EL,Barberis D,Barbero M,Barillari T,Barisits MS,Barkeloo J,Barklow T,Barlow N,Barnea R,Barnes SL,Barnett BM,Barnett RM,Barnovska-Blenessy Z,Baroncelli A,Barone G,Barr AJ,BarrancoNavarro L,Barreiro F,Barreiro Guimarães da Costa J,Bartoldus R,Barton AE,Bartos P,Basalaev A,Bassalat A,Bates RL,Batista SJ,Batlamous S,Batley JR,Battaglia M,Bauce M,Bauer F,Bauer KT,Bawa HS,Beacham JB,Beattie MD,Beau T,Beauchemin PH,Bechtle P,Beck HC,Beck HP,Becker K,Becker M,Becot C,Beddall A,Beddall AJ,Bednyakov VA,Bedognetti M,Bee CP,Beermann TA,Begalli M,Begel M,Behera A,Behr JK,Bell AS,Bella G,Bellagamba L,Bellerive A,Bellomo M,Belotskiy K,Belyaev NL,Benary O,Benchekroun D,Bender M,Benekos N,Benhammou Y,BenharNoccioli E,Benitez J,Benjamin DP,Benoit M,Bensinger JR,Bentvelsen S,Beresford L,Beretta M,Berge D,Bergeaas Kuutmann E,Berger N,Bergsten LJ,Beringer J,Berlendis S,Bernard NR,Bernardi G,Bernius C,Bernlochner FU,Berry T,Berta P,Bertella C,Bertoli G,Bertram IA,Bertsche C,Besjes GJ,BessidskaiaBylund O,Bessner M,Besson N,Bethani A,Bethke S,Betti A,Bevan AJ,Beyer J,Bianchi RM,Biebel O,Biedermann D,Bielski R,Bierwagen K,Biesuz NV,Biglietti M,Billoud TRV,Bindi M,Bingul A,Bini C,Biondi S,Bisanz T,Bittrich C,Bjergaard DM,Black JE,Black KM,Blair RE,Blazek T,Bloch I,Blocker C,Blue A,Blumenschein U,Blunier D,Bobbink GJ,Bobrovnikov VS,Bocchetta SS,Bocci A,Bock C,Boerner D,Bogavac D,Bogdanchikov AG,Bohm C,Boisvert V,Bokan P,Bold T,Boldyrev AS,Bolz AE,Bomben M,Bona M,Bonilla JSB,Boonekamp M,Borisov A,Borissov G,Bortfeldt J,Bortoletto D,Bortolotto V,Boscherini D,Bosman M,BossioSola JD,Boudreau J,Bouhova-Thacker EV,Boumediene D,Bourdarios C,Boutle SK,Boveia A,Boyd J,Boyko IR,Bozson AJ,Bracinik J,Brahimi N,Brandt A,Brandt G,Brandt O,Braren F,Bratzler U,Brau B,Brau JE,Breaden Madden WD,Brendlinger K,Brennan AJ,Brenner L,Brenner R,Bressler S,Brickwedde B,Briglin DL,Bristow TM,Britton D,Britzger D,Brock I,Brock R,Brooijmans G,Brooks T,Brooks WK,Brost E,Broughton JH,Bruckman deRenstrom PA,Bruncko D,Bruni A,Bruni G,Bruni LS,Bruno S,Brunt BH,Bruschi M,Bruscino N,Bryant P,Bryngemark L,Buanes T,Buat Q,Buchholz P,Buckley AG,Budagov IA,Buehrer F,Bugge MK,Bulekov O,Bullock D,Burch TJ,Burdin S,Burgard CD,Burger AM,Burghgrave B,Burka K,Burke S,Burmeister I,Burr JTP,Büscher D,Büscher V,Buschmann E,Bussey P,Butler JM,Buttar CM,Butterworth JM,Butti P,Buttinger W,Buzatu A,Buzykaev AR,Cabras G,CabreraUrbán S,Caforio D,Cai H,Cairo VMM,Cakir O,Calace N,Calafiura P,Calandri A,Calderini G,Calfayan P,Callea G,Caloba LP,CalventeLopez S,Calvet D,Calvet S,Calvet TP,Calvetti M,CamachoToro R,Camarda S,Camarri P,Cameron D,Caminal Armadans R,Camincher C,Campana S,Campanelli M,Camplani A,Campoverde A,Canale V,CanoBret M,Cantero J,Cao T,Cao Y,Capeans Garrido MDM,Caprini I,Caprini M,Capua M,Carbone RM,Cardarelli R,Cardillo F,Carli I,Carli T,Carlino G,Carlson BT,Carminati L,Carney RMD,Caron S,Carquin E,Carrá S,Carrillo-Montoya GD,Casadei D,Casado MP,Casha AF,Casolino M,Casper DW,Castelijn R,CastilloGimenez V,Castro NF,Catinaccio A,Catmore JR,Cattai A,Caudron J,Cavaliere V,Cavallaro E,Cavalli D,Cavalli-Sforza M,Cavasinni V,Celebi E,Ceradini F,CerdaAlberich L,Cerqueira AS,Cerri A,Cerrito L,Cerutti F,Cervelli A,Cetin SA,Chafaq A,Chakraborty DC,Chan SK,Chan WS,Chan YL,Chang P,Chapman JD,Charlton DG,Chau CC,Chavez Barajas CA,Che S,Chegwidden A,Chekanov S,Chekulaev SV,Chelkov GA,Chelstowska MA,Chen C,Chen C,Chen H,Chen J,Chen J,Chen S,Chen SJ,Chen X,Chen Y,Chen YH,Cheng HC,Cheng HJ,Cheplakov A,Cheremushkina E,Cherkaoui ElMoursli R,Cheu E,Cheung K,Chevalier L,Chiarella V,Chiarelli G,Chiodini G,Chisholm AS,Chitan A,Chiu I,Chiu YH,Chizhov MV,Choi K,Chomont AR,Chouridou S,Chow YS,Christodoulou V,Chu MC,Chudoba J,Chuinard AJ,Chwastowski JJ,Chytka L,Cinca D,Cindro V,Cioara IA,Ciocio A,Cirotto F,Citron ZH,Citterio M,Clark A,Clark MR,Clark PJ,Clarke RN,Clement C,Coadou Y,Cobal M,Coccaro A,Cochran J,Coimbra AEC,Colasurdo L,Cole B,Colijn AP,Collot J,Conde Muiño P,Coniavitis E,Connell SH,Connelly IA,Constantinescu S,Conventi F,Cooper-Sarkar AM,Cormier F,Cormier KJR,Corradi M,Corrigan EE,Corriveau F,Cortes-Gonzalez A,Costa MJ,Costanzo D,Cottin G,Cowan G,Cox BE,Crane J,Cranmer K,Crawley SJ,Creager RA,Cree G,Crépé-Renaudin S,Crescioli F,Cristinziani M,Croft V,Crosetti G,Cueto A,CuhadarDonszelmann T,Cukierman AR,Curatolo M,Cúth J,Czekierda S,Czodrowski P,Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa MJ,Da Via C,Dabrowski W,Dado T,Dahbi S,Dai T,Dale O,Dallaire F,Dallapiccola 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A,Zhou B,Zhou C,Zhou L,Zhou M,Zhou M,Zhou N,Zhou Y,Zhu CG,Zhu H,Zhu H,Zhu J,Zhu Y,Zhuang X,Zhukov K,Zhulanov V,Zibell A,Zieminska D,Zimine NI,Zimmermann S,Zinonos Z,Zinser M,Ziolkowski M,Zobernig G,Zoccoli A,Zoch K,Zorbas TG,Zou R,Zur Nedden M,Zwalinski L,
Search for new phenomena using the invariant mass distribution of same-flavour opposite-sign dilepton pairs in events with missing transverse momentum in   collisions with the ATLAS detector.
Eur Phys J C Part Fields. 2018;78(8):625
A search for new phenomena in final states containing an or pair, jets, and large missing transverse momentum is presented. This analysis makes use of proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of , collected during 2015 and 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The search targets the pair production of supersymmetric coloured particles (squarks or gluinos) and their decays into final states containing an or pair and the lightest neutralino ( ) via one of two next-to-lightest neutralino ( ) decay mechanisms: , where the boson decays leptonically leading to a peak in the dilepton invariant mass distribution around the boson mass; and with no intermediate resonance, yielding a kinematic endpoint in the dilepton invariant mass spectrum. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectation. Results are interpreted using simplified models, and exclude gluinos and squarks with masses as large as 1.85 and 1.3  at 95% confidence level, respectively.
PMID: 30215627

Dumont CM,Munsell MK,Carlson MA,Cummings BJ,Anderson A,Shea LD
Spinal progenitor-laden bridges support earlier axon regeneration following spinal cord injury.
Tissue Eng Part A. 2018 Sep 14;
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), function is lost below the level of injury due to axon damage and demyelination. Spinal progenitors, and more broadly neural stem cells (NSCs), can promote the growth of axons through multiple mechanisms, yet their poor survival following transplantation has been limiting the ability to obtain functional effects. In this study, we investigated multi-channel poly(lactide-co¬-glycolide) (PLG) bridges, which reduce inflammation and promote axon regrowth, as a support for spinal progenitor survival and function at the injury epicenter. Specifically, we hypothesized that mouse embryonic day 14 (E14) spinal progenitors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) would lead to regenerative gains compared to age-matched adult progenitor controls, which are expected to have similar regenerative capacity to the endogenous progenitors. E14spinal EGFP-progenitors were transplanted into a lateral T9-10 hemisection and EGFP+ cells were evident in the bridge and contralateral tissue 8 weeks post-injury, with enhanced survival of E14 compared to adult transplants. Only E14 progenitor-loaded bridges increased axon regrowth compared to blank bridges, resulting in a 3.3-fold increase in axon density (1674 v 497 axons/mm2) and 3.6-fold increase in myelination (~30% of axons) after 8 weeks. By 6 months, NeuN+ neural bodies were increased within the bridge region of mice transplanted with E14 progenitors. Mice receiving E14 transplants exhibited modest improvements in locomotion, including an earlier ability to perform ipsilateral stepping. The combination of bridges with E14 progenitors produced synergistic reparative gains, with early axon growth and re-myelination followed by latent increases in neural bodies within the bridge.
PMID: 30215293

Thomas BB,Zhu D,Lin TC,Kim YC,Seiler MJ,Martinez-Camarillo JC,Lin B,Shad Y,Hinton DR,Humayun MS
A new immunodeficient retinal dystrophic rat model for transplantation studies using human-derived cells.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2018 Sep 13;
To create new immunodeficient Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats by introducing the defective MerTK gene into athymic nude rats.
PMID: 30215097

Farago AF,Taylor MS,Doebele RC,Zhu VW,Kummar S,Spira AI,Boyle TA,Haura EB,Arcila ME,Benayed R,Aisner DL,Horick NK,Lennerz JK,Le LP,Iafrate AJ,Ou SI,Shaw AT,Mino-Kenudson M,Drilon A
Clinicopathologic Features of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Harboring an Gene Fusion.
JCO Precis Oncol. 2018;2
Gene rearrangements involving can generate fusion oncoproteins containing the kinase domains of TRKA/B/C, respectively. These fusions are rare in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with frequency previously estimated to be
PMID: 30215037

Ungar L,Sanders D,Becerra B,Barseghian A
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Is Understudied.
Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018;5:116
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common heritable condition in which mutations of genes governing cholesterol metabolism result in elevated LDL levels and accelerated atherosclerosis. The treatment of FH focuses on lipid lowering drugs to decrease patients' cholesterol levels and reduce their risk of cardiovascular events. Even with optimal medical therapy, some FH patients will develop coronary atherosclerosis, suffer myocardial infarction, and require revascularization. Yet, the revascularization of FH patients has not been widely studied. Here we review FH, identify unanswered questions in the interventional management of FH patients, and explore barriers and opportunities for answering these questions. Further research is needed in this neglected but important topic in interventional cardiology.
PMID: 30214904

Eno C,Bayrak-Toydemir P,Bean L,Braxton A,Chao EC,El-Khechen D,Esplin ED,Friedman B,Hagman KDF,Hambuch T,Hernandez A,Juusola J,Londre G,Machado J,Mao R,Mighion L,Rehm HL,Ward P,Deignan JL
Misattributed parentage as an unanticipated finding during exome/genome sequencing: current clinical laboratory practices and an opportunity for standardization.
Genet Med. 2018 Sep 14;
Clinical laboratories performing exome or genome sequencing (ES/GS) are familiar with the challenges associated with proper consenting for and reporting of medically actionable secondary findings based on recommendations from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). Misattributed parentage is another type of unanticipated finding a laboratory may encounter during family-based ES/GS; however, there are currently no professional recommendations related to the proper consenting for and reporting of misattributed parentage encountered during ES/GS.
PMID: 30214068

Jiang S,Schenke K,Eccles JS,Xu D,Warschauer M
Cross-national comparison of gender differences in the enrollment in and completion of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics Massive Open Online Courses.
PLoS One. 2018;13(9):e0202463
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have the potential to democratize education by providing learners with access to high-quality free online courses. However, evidence supporting this democratization across countries is limited. We explored the question of MOOC democratization by conducting cross-national comparisons of gender differences in the enrollment in and completion of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) MOOCs. We found that while females were less likely than males to enroll in STEM MOOCs, they were equally likely to complete them. Further, a higher probability to enroll in STEM MOOCs and smaller gender gaps in STEM MOOC enrollment and completion were found in less gender-equal and less economically developed countries.
PMID: 30212458


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