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Terry J,Willey A
Foreword: Biology/embodiment/desire.
J Lesbian Stud. 2017 Aug 10;:1-7
The sexological roots of "lesbian" and the "queer" turn from biologized categories of sexual difference pose an exciting set of questions and tensions for thinking about queer feminism and biological meanings. This issue seeks to open space to explore how we might reconcile assumptions about "female same-sex sexuality" that often accompany "lesbian" with queer and trans-feminist treatments of science, embodiment, and desiring, while at the same time insisting on the importance of an undertheorized dyke legacy for thinking the at-once material and political nature of sexuality.
PMID: 28796577

Wu X,Riedel J,Dong VM
Transforming Olefins into γ,δ-Unsaturated Nitriles through Copper Catalysis.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2017 Aug 10;
We have developed a strategy to transform olefins into homoallylic nitriles through a mechanism that combines copper catalysis with alkyl nitrile radicals. The radicals are easily generated from alkyl nitriles in the presence of the mild oxidant di-tert-butyl peroxide. This cross-dehydrogenative coupling between simple olefins and alkylnitriles bears advantages over the conventional use of halides and toxic cyanide reagents. With this method, we showcase the facile synthesis of a flavoring agent, a natural product, and a polymer precursor from simple olefins.
PMID: 28796438

Lu KD,Cooper D,Haddad F,Zaldivar F,Kraft M,Radom-Aizik S
Glucocorticoid receptor expression on circulating leukocytes in healthy and asthmatic adolescents in response to exercise.
Pediatr Res. 2017 Aug;82(2):261-271
BackgroundPoor aerobic fitness is associated with worsening of asthma symptoms, and fitness training may improve asthma control. The mechanism linking fitness with asthma is not known. We hypothesized that repeated bouts of exercise would lead to a downregulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression on circulating leukocytes, reflecting a reduced responsiveness to stress.MethodsIn a prospective exercise training intervention of healthy and asthmatic adolescents, GR expression in leukocytes was measured using flow cytometry in response to an acute exercise challenge before and after the exercise training intervention. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression of GR, GRβ, HSP70, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2 was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR).ResultsPeak VO2 increased by 14.6±2.3%, indicating an effective training (P
PMID: 28796240

Wang H,Zhang K,Cao H,Zhang X,Li Y,Wei Q,Zhang D,Jia Q,Bie L
Seizure After Cranioplasty: Incidence and Risk Factors.
J Craniofac Surg. 2017 Aug 08;
To investigate clinical characteristics of postcranioplasty seizures (PCS) first observed after cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC) to treat traumatic brain injury and to define factors that increase PCS risk.
PMID: 28796104

Haensel D,Dai X
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cutaneous wound healing: Where we are and where we are heading.
Dev Dyn. 2017 Aug 10;
Cutaneous wound healing occurs in distinct yet overlapping steps with the end goal of reforming a stratified epithelium to restore epidermal barrier function. A key component of this process is re-epithelialization, which involves the proliferation and migration of epidermal keratinocytes surrounding the wound. This spatiotemporally controlled process resembles aspects of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and is thus proposed to involve a partial EMT. Here we review current literature on the cellular and molecular changes that occur during, and the known or potential regulatory factors of cutaneous wound re-epithelialization and EMT to highlight their similarities and differences. We also discuss possible future directions towards better understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms with implications for developing new therapeutics to improve wound repair in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28795450

Manville RW,Neverisky DL,Abbott GW
SMIT1 Modifies KCNQ Channel Function and Pharmacology by Physical Interaction with the Pore.
Biophys J. 2017 Aug 08;113(3):613-626
Voltage-gated potassium channels of the KCNQ (Kv7) subfamily are essential for control of cellular excitability and repolarization in a wide range of cell types. Recently, we and others found that some KCNQ channels functionally and physically interact with sodium-dependent solute transporters, including myo-inositol transporters SMIT1 and SMIT2, potentially facilitating various modes of channel-transporter signal integration. In contrast to indirect effects such as channel regulation by SMIT-transported, myo-inositol-derived phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the mechanisms and functional consequences of the physical interaction of channels with transporters have been little studied. Here, using co-immunoprecipitation with different channel domains, we found that SMIT1 binds to the KCNQ2 pore module. We next tested the effects of SMIT1 co-expression, in the absence of extracellular myo-inositol or other SMIT1 substrates, on fundamental functional attributes of KCNQ2, KCNQ2/3, KCNQ1, and KCNQ1-KCNE1 channels. Without exception, SMIT1 altered KCNQ ion selectivity, sensitivity to extracellular K(+), and pharmacology, consistent with an impact on conformation of the KCNQ pore. SMIT1 also altered the gating kinetics and/or voltage dependence of KCNQ2, KCNQ2/3, and KCNQ1-KCNE1. In contrast, SMIT1 had no effect on Kv1.1 (KCNA1) gating, ion selectivity, or pharmacology. We conclude that, independent of its transport activity and indirect regulatory mechanisms involving inositol-derived increases in PIP2, SMIT1, and likely other related sodium-dependent solute transporters, regulates KCNQ channel ion selectivity, gating, and pharmacology by direct physical interaction with the pore module.
PMID: 28793216

Proudfoot AEI,Johnson Z,Bonvin P,Handel TM
Glycosaminoglycan Interactions with Chemokines Add Complexity to a Complex System.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2017 Aug 09;10(3)
Chemokines have two types of interactions that function cooperatively to control cell migration. Chemokine receptors on migrating cells integrate signals initiated upon chemokine binding to promote cell movement. Interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) localize chemokines on and near cell surfaces and the extracellular matrix to provide direction to the cell movement. The matrix of interacting chemokine-receptor partners has been known for some time, precise signaling and trafficking properties of many chemokine-receptor pairs have been characterized, and recent structural information has revealed atomic level detail on chemokine-receptor recognition and activation. However, precise knowledge of the interactions of chemokines with GAGs has lagged far behind such that a single paradigm of GAG presentation on surfaces is generally applied to all chemokines. This review summarizes accumulating evidence which suggests that there is a great deal of diversity and specificity in these interactions, that GAG interactions help fine-tune the function of chemokines, and that GAGs have other roles in chemokine biology beyond localization and surface presentation. This suggests that chemokine-GAG interactions add complexity to the already complex functions of the receptors and ligands.
PMID: 28792472

Daniels J,Lane T,Struthers H,Maleke K,Moges W,McIntyre J,Coates T
Assessing the Feasibility of Smartphone Apps for HIV-Care Research with MSM and Transgender Individuals in Mpumalanga, South Africa.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017 Jan 01;:2325957417724207
There is an urgent need to develop the HIV treatment cascade for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals in rural Mpumalanga, South Africa. Mhealth tools such as smartphone applications have the potential to support HIV self-care behaviors. We conducted an exploratory study with HIV-positive community leaders to understand their current uses of cell phones and smartphones and to assess their interest in an HIV research study that utilized a smartphone application for HIV care support. A total of 18 community leaders were recruited to complete a questionnaire and focus group. We found that a large proportion of participants had smartphone access and were interested in a research study that utilized a smartphone application with secure access measures. We conclude that smartphone applications for HIV care research are feasible based on access and interest by MSM and transgender individuals in this rural setting.
PMID: 28791915

Zhuang Y,Qiu X,Wang L,Ma Q,Mapstone M,Luque A,Weber M,Tivarus M,Miller E,Arduino RC,Zhong J,Schifitto G
Combination antiretroviral therapy improves cognitive performance and functional connectivity in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals.
J Neurovirol. 2017 Aug 08;
Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm(3)) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Uninfected subjects were assessed once at baseline. Functional connectivity (FC) was assessed within the default mode network while structural connectivity was assessed by voxel-wise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography within the DMN. Tenofovir and emtricitabine blood concentration were measured at week 12 of cART. Prior to cART, HIV-infected individuals had significantly lower cognitive performance than control subjects as measured by the total Z-score from the neuropsychological tests assessing six cognitive domains (p = 0.020). After 12 weeks of cART treatment, there remained only a weak cognitive difference between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects (p = 0.057). Mean FC was lower in HIV-infected individuals compared with those uninfected (p = 0.008), but FC differences became non-significant after treatment (p = 0.197). There were no differences in DTI metrics between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals using the TBSS approach and limited evidence of decreased structural connectivity within the DMN in HIV-infected individuals. Tenofovir and emtricitabine plasma concentrations did not correlate with either cognitive performance or imaging metrics.
PMID: 28791662

Atucha E,Vukojevic V,Fornari RV,Ronzoni G,Demougin P,Peter F,Atsak P,Coolen MW,Papassotiropoulos A,McGaugh JL,de Quervain DJ,Roozendaal B
Noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala maintains hippocampus-dependent accuracy of remote memory.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 08;
Emotional enhancement of memory by noradrenergic mechanisms is well-described, but the long-term consequences of such enhancement are poorly understood. Over time, memory traces are thought to undergo a neural reorganization, that is, a systems consolidation, during which they are, at least partly, transferred from the hippocampus to neocortical networks. This transfer is accompanied by a decrease in episodic detailedness. Here we investigated whether norepinephrine (NE) administration into the basolateral amygdala after training on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task, comprising two distinct training contexts, alters systems consolidation dynamics to maintain episodic-like accuracy and hippocampus dependency of remote memory. At a 2-d retention test, both saline- and NE-treated rats accurately discriminated the training context in which they had received footshock. Hippocampal inactivation with muscimol before retention testing disrupted discrimination of the shock context in both treatment groups. At 28 d, saline-treated rats showed hippocampus-independent retrieval and lack of discrimination. In contrast, NE-treated rats continued to display accurate memory of the shock-context association. Hippocampal inactivation at this remote retention test blocked episodic-like accuracy and induced a general memory impairment. These findings suggest that the NE treatment altered systems consolidation dynamics by maintaining hippocampal involvement in the memory. This shift in systems consolidation was paralleled by time-regulated DNA methylation and transcriptional changes of memory-related genes, namely Reln and Pkmζ, in the hippocampus and neocortex. The findings provide evidence suggesting that consolidation of emotional memories by noradrenergic mechanisms alters systems consolidation dynamics and, as a consequence, influences the maintenance of long-term episodic-like accuracy of memory.
PMID: 28790188

Holopainen JK,Kivimäenpää M,Nizkorodov SA
Plant-derived Secondary Organic Material in the Air and Ecosystems.
Trends Plant Sci. 2017 Aug 05;
Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and deposited secondary organic material (SOM) are formed by oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. Many SOA compounds have much longer chemical lifetimes than the original VOC, and may accumulate on plant surfaces and in soil as SOM because of their low volatility. This suggests that they may have important and presently unrecognized roles in plant adaptation. Using reactive plant terpenoids as a model we propose a three-tier (atmosphere-vegetation-soil) framework to better understand the ecological and evolutionary functions of SOM. In this framework, SOA in the atmosphere is known to affect solar radiation, SOM on the plant surfaces influences the interactive organisms, and wet and dry deposition of SOM on soil affects soil organisms.
PMID: 28789922

Christensen JF,Cela-Conde CJ,Gomila A
Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul;1400(1):8-32
This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance.
PMID: 28787539

Adelman Z,Akbari O,Bauer J,Bier E,Bloss C,Carter SR,Callender C,Denis AC,Cowhey P,Dass B,Delborne J,Devereaux M,Ellsworth P,Friedman RM,Gantz V,Gibson C,Hay BA,Hoddle M,James AA,James S,Jorgenson L,Kalichman M,Marshall J,McGinnis W,Newman J,Pearson A,Quemada H,Rudenko L,Shelton A,Vinetz JM,Weisman J,Wong B,Wozniak C
Rules of the road for insect gene drive research and testing.
Nat Biotechnol. 2017 Aug 08;35(8):716-718
PMID: 28787415

Fu DJ,Zhao RH,Li JH,Yang JJ,Mao RW,Wu BW,Li P,Zi XL,Zhang QQ,Cai HJ,Zhang SY,Zhang YB,Liu HM
Molecular diversity of phenothiazines: design and synthesis of phenothiazine-dithiocarbamate hybrids as potential cell cycle blockers.
Mol Divers. 2017 Aug 07;
Novel phenothiazine-dithiocarbamate analogues were designed by molecular hybridization strategy and synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against three selected cancer cell lines (EC-109, MGC-803, and PC-3). The preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) for this phenothiazine-dithiocarbamate hybrids is explored. Among all analogues, 2-oxo-2-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)ethyl 4-ethylpiperazine-1-carbodithioate (8a) showed the most potent inhibitory activity with an [Formula: see text] value of [Formula: see text] against PC-3 cells. In addition, compound 8a could arrest the cell cycle at the G1 phase and regulate the expression of G1 checkpoint-related proteins, suggesting that phenothiazine-dithiocarbamate hybrids might be useful as cell cycle blockers.
PMID: 28785928

Bhanja SN,Mukherjee A,Rodell M,Wada Y,Chattopadhyay S,Velicogna I,Pangaluru K,Famiglietti JS
Groundwater rejuvenation in parts of India influenced by water-policy change implementation.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 07;7(1):7453
The dwindling groundwater resource of India, supporting almost one fifth of the global population and also the largest groundwater user, has been of great concern in recent years. However, in contrary to the well documented Indian groundwater depletion due to rapid and unmanaged groundwater withdrawal, here for the first time, we report regional-scale groundwater storage (GWS) replenishment through long-term (1996-2014, using more than 19000 observation locations) in situ and decadal (2003-2014) satellite-based groundwater storage measurements in western and southern parts of India. In parts of western and southern India, in situ GWS (GWSobs) has been decreasing at the rate of -5.81??±??0.38??km(3)/year (in 1996-2001) and -0.92??±??0.12??km(3)/year (in 1996-2002), and reversed to replenish at the rate of 2.04??±??0.20??km(3)/year (in 2002-2014) and 0.76??±??0.08??km(3)/year (in 2003-2014), respectively. Here, using statistical analyses and simulation results of groundwater management policy change effect on groundwater storage in western and southern India, we show that paradigm shift in Indian groundwater withdrawal and management policies for sustainable water utilization appear to have started replenishing the aquifers in western and southern parts of India.
PMID: 28785088

Dai S,You Y,Zhang S,Cai W,Xu M,Xie L,Wu R,Graham GW,Pan X
In situ atomic-scale observation of oxygen-driven core-shell formation in Pt3Co nanoparticles.
Nat Commun. 2017 Aug 07;8(1):204
The catalytic performance of core-shell platinum alloy nanoparticles is typically superior to that of pure platinum nanoparticles for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cell cathodes. Thorough understanding of core-shell formation is critical for atomic-scale design and control of the platinum shell, which is known to be the structural feature responsible for the enhancement. Here we reveal details of a counter-intuitive core-shell formation process in platinum-cobalt nanoparticles at elevated temperature under oxygen at atmospheric pressure, by using advanced in situ electron microscopy. Initial segregation of a thin platinum, rather than cobalt oxide, surface layer occurs concurrently with ordering of the intermetallic core, followed by the layer-by-layer growth of a platinum shell via Ostwald ripening during the oxygen annealing treatment. Calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that this process follows an energetically favourable path. These findings are expected to be useful for the future design of structured platinum alloy nanocatalysts.Core-shell platinum alloy nanoparticles are promising catalysts for oxygen reduction, however a deeper understanding of core-shell formation is still required. Here the authors report oxygen-driven formation of core-shell Pt3Co nanoparticles, seen at the atomic scale with in situ electron microscopy at ambient pressure.
PMID: 28785077

Lai M,Realini N,La Ferla M,Passalacqua I,Matteoli G,Ganesan A,Pistello M,Mazzanti CM,Piomelli D
Complete Acid Ceramidase ablation prevents cancer-initiating cell formation in melanoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 07;7(1):7411
Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine hydrolase that catalyzes the conversion of ceramide into fatty acid and sphingosine. This reaction lowers intracellular ceramide levels and concomitantly generates sphingosine used for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) production. Since increases in ceramide and consequent decreases of S1P reduce proliferation of various cancers, AC might offer a new target for anti-tumor therapy. Here we used CrispR-Cas9-mediated gene editing to delete the gene encoding for AC, ASAH1, in human A375 melanoma cells. ASAH1-null clones show significantly greater accumulation of long-chain saturated ceramides that are substrate for AC. As seen with administration of exogenous ceramide, AC ablation blocks cell cycle progression and accelerates senescence. Importantly, ASAH1-null cells also lose the ability to form cancer-initiating cells and to undergo self-renewal, which is suggestive of a key role for AC in maintaining malignancy and self-renewal of invasive melanoma cells. The results suggest that AC inhibitors might find therapeutic use as adjuvant therapy for advanced melanoma.
PMID: 28785021

Lin Z,Dosher BA,Lu ZL
Mixture of easy trials enables transient and sustained perceptual improvements through priming and perceptual learning.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 07;7(1):7421
The sense of vision allows us to discriminate fine details across a wide range of tasks. How to improve this perceptual skill, particularly within a short training session, is of substantial interest. Emerging evidence suggests that mixing easy trials can quickly improve performance in hard trials, but it is equivocal whether the improvement is short-lived or long-lasting, and additionally what accounts for this improvement. Here, by tracking objective performance (accuracy) and subjective experience (ratings of target visibility and choice confidence) over time and in a large sample of participants, we demonstrate the coexistence of transient and sustained effects of mixing easy trials, which differ markedly in their timescales, in their effects on subjective awareness, and in individual differences. In particular, whereas the transient effect was found to be ubiquitous and manifested similarly across objective and subjective measures, the sustained effect was limited to a subset of participants with weak convergence from objective and subjective measures. These results indicate that mixture of easy trials enables two distinct, co-existing forms of rapid perceptual improvements in hard trials, as mediated by robust priming and fragile learning. Placing constraints on theory of brain plasticity, this finding may also have implications for alleviating visual deficits.
PMID: 28785012

Yao G,Lam KH,Weisemann J,Peng L,Krez N,Perry K,Shoemaker CB,Dong M,Rummel A,Jin R
A camelid single-domain antibody neutralizes botulinum neurotoxin A by blocking host receptor binding.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 07;7(1):7438
Antibody treatment is currently the only available countermeasure for botulism, a fatal illness caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication. Among the seven major serotypes of BoNT/A-G, BoNT/A poses the most serious threat to humans because of its high potency and long duration of action. Prior to entering neurons and blocking neurotransmitter release, BoNT/A recognizes motoneurons via a dual-receptor binding process in which it engages both the neuron surface polysialoganglioside (PSG) and synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2). Previously, we identified a potent neutralizing antitoxin against BoNT/A1 termed ciA-C2, derived from a camelid heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH). In this study, we demonstrate that ciA-C2 prevents BoNT/A1 intoxication by inhibiting its binding to neuronal receptor SV2. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of ciA-C2 in complex with the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/A1 (HCA1) at 1.68??? resolution. The structure revealed that ciA-C2 partially occupies the SV2-binding site on HCA1, causing direct interference of HCA1 interaction with both the N-glycan and peptide-moiety of SV2. Interestingly, this neutralization mechanism is similar to that of a monoclonal antibody in clinical trials, despite that ciA-C2 is more than 10-times smaller. Taken together, these results enlighten our understanding of BoNT/A1 interactions with its neuronal receptor, and further demonstrate that inhibiting toxin binding to the host receptor is an efficient countermeasure strategy.
PMID: 28785006

Blei DM,Smyth P
Science and data science.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Aug 07;
Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.
PMID: 28784795

Ing NL,Nusca TD,Hochbaum AI
Geobacter sulfurreducens pili support ohmic electronic conduction in aqueous solution.
Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2017 Aug 07;
The bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens is a model biological catalyst in microbial electrochemical devices. G. sulfurreducens forms electrically conductive, electrode-associated biofilms, but the biological structures mediating electrical conduction from cells to the electrodes are a matter of debate. Bacteria in these communities produce a network of fiber-like Type IV pili, which have been proposed to act either as inherent, protein-based electronic conductors, or as electronically inert scaffolds for cytochromes mediating long-range charge transport. Previous studies have examined pilus conduction mechanisms under vacuum and in dry conditions, but their conduction mechanism under physiologically relevant conditions has yet to be characterized. In this work, we isolate G. sulfurreducens pili, and compare the electronic conduction mechanism of both live biofilms and purified pili networks under dry and aqueous conditions. Solid-state I-V characteristics indicate that electronic transport in films of purified pili is representative of conduction in a fiber percolation network. Electrochemical gating measurements in a bipotentiostat device configuration confirm previous results suggesting redox currents dominate live biofilm conduction. Purified pili films, however, exhibit non-redox electronic conduction under aqueous, buffered conditions, and their conductivity increases with decreasing temperature. These findings show that isolated pili possess inherent, non-redox-mediated conductivity consistent with a metallic-like model of charge carrier transport. The results demonstrate an experimental platform for studying electronic transport in biomaterials and suggest that pili serve as an exemplary model for designing bioelectronic interfaces.
PMID: 28783184

Badal-Faesen S,Firnhaber C,Kendall MA,Wu X,Grinsztejn B,Escada RODS,Fernandez M,Hogg E,Sanne I,Johnson P,Alland D,Mazurek GH,Benator DA,Luetkemeyer AF, ,
Impact of Larger Sputum Volume on Xpert(®) MTB/RIF Assay Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Smear-Negative Individuals with Suspected Tuberculosis.
J Clin Med. 2017 Aug 07;6(8)
As a strategy to improve the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based testing in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) negative samples, larger volumes of sputum (5-10 mL) were tested with Xpert(®) MTB/RIF from 176 individuals with smear-negative sputum undergoing tuberculosis evaluation. Despite larger volumes, this strategy had a suboptimal sensitivity of 50% (4/8).
PMID: 28783093

Godbole R,Saggar R,Zider A,Betancourt J,Wallace WD,Suh RD,Kamangar N
EXPRESS: Insights on Pulmonary Tumor Thrombotic Microangiopathy: A 7-Patient Case Series.
Pulm Circ. 2017 Jan 01;:2045893217728072
PMID: 28782988

Hanna MH,Jafari MD,Jafari F,Phelan MJ,Rinehart J,Sun C,Carmichael JC,Mills SD,Stamos MJ,Pigazzi A
Randomized Clinical Trial of Epidural Compared to Conventional Analgesia after Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgery.
J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Aug 03;
The effectiveness of thoracic epidural analgesia (EA) versus conventional intravenous analgesia (IV) after minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is still unproven. We designed a randomized controlled trial comparing EA versus IV after MIS colorectal surgery.
PMID: 28782603

Kumbhani SR,Wingen LM,Perraud V,Finlayson-Pitts BJ
A Cautionary Note on the Effects of Laboratory Air Contaminants on Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurements.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2017 Aug 06;
Ambient ionization mass spectrometry methods are convenient, sensitive and require little sample preparation. However, they are susceptible to species present in air surrounding the mass spectrometer. This study identifies some challenges associated with the potential impacts of indoor air contaminants on ionization and analysis involving open air methods.
PMID: 28782138

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