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Successful Treatment of Residual Curvature in Peyronie's Disease in Men Previously Treated with Intralesional Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum.
Urology. 2017 Sep 05;
To determine the success and feasibility of surgically correcting residual curvature after intralesional collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for the treatment of Peyronie's disease.
Huh WK,Joura EA,Giuliano AR,Iversen OE,de Andrade RP,Ault KA,Bartholomew D,Cestero RM,Fedrizzi EN,Hirschberg AL,Mayrand MH,Ruiz-Sternberg AM,Stapleton JT,Wiley DJ,Ferenczy A,Kurman R,Ronnett BM,Stoler MH,Cuzick J,Garland SM,Kjaer SK,Bautista OM,Haupt R,Moeller E,Ritter M,Roberts CC,Shields C,Luxembourg A
Final efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety analyses of a nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in women aged 16-26 years: a randomised, double-blind trial.
Lancet. 2017 Sep 05;
Primary analyses of a study in young women aged 16-26 years showed efficacy of the nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) vaccine against infections and disease related to HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, and non-inferior HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 antibody responses when compared with quadrivalent HPV (qHPV; HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. We aimed to report efficacy of the 9vHPV vaccine for up to 6 years following first administration and antibody responses over 5 years.
Bennett K,Rouxel JR,Mukamel S
Linear and nonlinear frequency- and time-domain spectroscopy with multiple frequency combs.
J Chem Phys. 2017 Sep 07;147(9):094304
Two techniques that employ equally spaced trains of optical pulses to map an optical high frequency into a low frequency modulation of the signal that can be detected in real time are compared. The development of phase-stable optical frequency combs has opened up new avenues to metrology and spectroscopy. The ability to generate a series of frequency spikes with precisely controlled separation permits a fast, highly accurate sampling of the material response. Recently, pairs of frequency combs with slightly different repetition rates have been utilized to down-convert material susceptibilities from the optical to microwave regime where they can be recorded in real time. We show how this one-dimensional dual comb technique can be extended to multiple dimensions by using several combs. We demonstrate how nonlinear susceptibilities can be quickly acquired using this technique. In a second class of techniques, sequences of ultrafast mode locked laser pulses are used to recover pathways of interactions contributing to nonlinear susceptibilities by using a photo-acoustic modulation varying along the sequences. We show that these techniques can be viewed as a time-domain analog of the multiple frequency comb scheme.
Abdala-Roberts L,Pratt R,Pratt JD,Mooney KA
Traits underlying community consequences of plant intra-specific diversity.
PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0183493
A plant's performance and interactions with other trophic levels are recorgnized to be contingent upon plant diversity and underlying associational dynamics, but far less is known about the plant traits driving such phenomena. We manipulated diversity in plant traits using pairs of plant and a substitutive design to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects operating at a fine spatial scale. Specifically, we measured the effects of diversity in sex (sexual monocultures vs. male and female genotypes together) and growth rate (growth rate monocultures vs. fast- and slow-growing genotypes together) on growth of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia and on above- and belowground consumers associated with this plant. We compared effects on associate abundance (# associates per plant) vs. density (# associates per kg plant biomass) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diversity effects; effects on abundance but not density suggest diversity effects are mediated by resource abundance (i.e. plant biomass) alone, whereas effects on density suggest diversity effects are mediated by plant-based heterogeneity or quality. Sexual diversity increased root growth but reduced the density (but not abundance) of the dietary generalist aphid Aphis gossypii and its associated aphid-tending ants, suggesting sex mixtures were of lower quality to this herbivore (e.g. via reduced plant quality), and that this effect indirectly influenced ants. Sexual diversity had no effect on the abundance or density of parasitoids attacking A. gossypii, the dietary specialist aphid Uroleucon macolai, or mycorrhizae. In contrast, growth rate diversity did not influence plant growth or any associates except for the dietary specialist aphid U. macolai, which increased in both abundance and density at high diversity, suggesting growth rate mixtures were of higher quality to this herbivore. These results highlight that plant associational and diversity effects on consumers are contingent upon the source of plant trait variation, and that the nature of such dynamics may vary both within and among trophic levels.
Vennelaganti S,Vennalaganti P,Mathur S,Singh S,Jamal M,Kanakadandi V,Rai T,Hall M,Gupta N,Nutalapati V,Alsop B,Hornung B,Sharma P
Validation of Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) Criteria for Diagnosing Colon Polyp Histology.
J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Sep 06;
Validated probe-based confocal endomicroscopy (pCLE) criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and tubular adenomas (TA) have not yet been developed.
The "chicken-and-egg" development of political opinionsThe roles of genes, social status, ideology, and information.
Politics Life Sci. 2017;36(1):1-13
Twin studies have revealed political ideology to be partially heritable. Neurological research has shown that ideological differences are reflected in brain structure and response, suggesting a direct genotype-phenotype link. Social and informational environments, however, also demonstrably affect brain structure and response. This leads to a "chicken-and-egg" question: do genes produce brains with ideological predispositions, causing the preferential absorption of consonant information and thereby forming an ideology, or do social and informational environments do most of the heavy lifting, with genetic evidence the spurious artifact of outdated methodology? Or are both inextricably intertwined contributors? This article investigates the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to ideological development using a role-play experiment investigating the development of opinions on a novel political issue. The results support the view that the process is bidirectional, suggesting that, like most traits, political ideology is produced by the complex interplay of genetic and (social/informational) environmental influences.
Hirotsu K,Chiou AS,Chiang A,Kim J,Kwong BY,Pugliese S
Localized bullous pemphigoid in a melanoma patient with dual exposure to PD-1 checkpoint inhibition and radiation therapy.
JAAD Case Rep. 2017 Sep;3(5):404-406
Cicero AFG,Colletti A,Bajraktari G,Descamps O,Djuric DM,Ezhov M,Fras Z,Katsiki N,Langlois M,Latkovskis G,Panagiotakos DB,Paragh G,Mikhailidis DP,Mitchenko O,Paulweber B,Pella D,Pitsavos C,Reiner Ž,Ray KK,Rizzo M,Sahebkar A,Serban MC,Sperling LS,Toth PP,Vinereanu D,Vrablík M,Wong ND,Banach M
Lipid lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel.
Arch Med Sci. 2017 Aug;13(5):965-1005
Jagnandan K,Higham TE
Lateral movements of a massive tail influence gecko locomotion: an integrative study comparing tail restriction and autotomy.
Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 07;7(1):10865
Tails are an intricate component of the locomotor system for many vertebrates. Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) possess a large tail that is laterally undulated during steady locomotion. However, the tail is readily shed via autotomy, resulting in the loss of tail function, loss in body mass, and a cranial shift in the center of mass. To elucidate the function of tail undulations, we investigated changes in limb kinematics after manipulating the tail artificially by restricting tail undulations and naturally by removing the tail via autotomy. Restricting tail undulations resulted in kinematic adjustments similar to those that occur following tail autotomy, characterized by more flexed hind limb joints. These data suggest that effects of autotomy on locomotion may be linked to the loss of tail movements rather than the loss of mass or a shift in center of mass. We also provide empirical support for the link between lateral tail undulations and step length through the rotation of the pelvic girdle and retraction of the femur. Restriction and autotomy of the tail limits pelvic rotation, which reduces femur retraction and decreases step length. Our findings demonstrate a functional role for tail undulations in geckos, which likely applies to other terrestrial vertebrates.
Sickerman NS,Hu Y,Ribbe MW
Nitrogenase Assembly: Strategies and Procedures.
Methods Enzymol. 2017;595:261-302
Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme system that plays a critical role in biological nitrogen fixation, and the study of how its metallocenters are assembled into functional entities to facilitate the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia is an active area of interest. The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii is especially amenable to culturing and genetic manipulation, and this organism has provided the basis for many insights into the assembly of nitrogenase proteins and their respective metallocofactors. This chapter will cover the basic procedures necessary for growing A. vinelandii cultures and subsequent recombinant transformation and protein expression techniques. Furthermore, protocols for nitrogenase protein purification and substrate reduction activity assays are described. These methods provide a solid framework for the assessment of nitrogenase assembly and catalysis.
VoPham T,DuPré N,Tamimi RM,James P,Bertrand KA,Vieira V,Laden F,Hart JE
Environmental radon exposure and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II.
Environ Health. 2017 Sep 07;16(1):97
Radon and its decay products, a source of ionizing radiation, are primarily inhaled and can deliver a radiation dose to breast tissue, where they may continue to decay and emit DNA damage-inducing particles. Few studies have examined the relationship between radon and breast cancer.
Eldredge AC,Johnson ME,Oldenhuis NJ,Guan Z
Focused Library Approach to Discover Discrete Dipeptide Bolaamphiphiles for siRNA Delivery.
Biomacromolecules. 2016 Oct 10;17(10):3138-3144
In this study, we report a new dipeptide functionalization strategy for developing new dendritic bolaamphiphile vectors for efficient siRNA transfection. A focused library of dipeptides was constructed using four amino acids: l-arginine, l-histidine, l-lysine, and l-tryptophan. The dipeptides were coupled to two dendritic bolaamphiphile scaffolds that we developed previously, allowing us to quickly access a focused library of discrete vectors with multivalent dendritic dipeptide functionalities. The resulting discrete bolaamphiphiles were screened for siRNA delivery in vitro in HEK-293 and HeLa cells. Bolaamphiphiles functionalized with dipeptides containing Lys or Arg and either His or Trp were the most effective for in vitro siRNA delivery. Necessary cationic charge to ensure efficient siRNA binding are provided by Arg and Lys residues, whereas endosomal escape is provided through pH responsive buffering of His or membrane interactions of Trp. The most effective vectors (F10 HR/RH) exhibited greater than 75% gene silencing in multiple cell lines and exhibited serum stability.
Samarasena JB,Huang JY,Chin M,Chang KJ,Lee JG
Altered anatomy ERCP with spiral overtube-assisted stent placement.
Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Oct;84(4):738
Chong E,Blum SA
Aminoboration: Addition of B-N s Bonds across C-C p Bonds.
J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Aug 19;137(32):10144-7
This communication demonstrates the first catalytic aminoboration of C-C p bonds by B-N s bonds and its application to the synthesis of 3-borylated indoles. The regiochemistry and broad functional group compatibility of this addition reaction enable substitution patterns that are incompatible with major competing technologies. This aminoboration reaction effects the formation of C-B and C-N bonds in a single step from aminoboronic esters, which are simple starting materials available on the gram scale. This reaction generates synthetically valuable N-heterocyclic organoboron compounds as potential building blocks for drug discovery. The working mechanistic hypothesis involves a bifunctional Lewis acid/base catalysis strategy involving the combination of a carbophilic gold cation and a trifluoroacetate anion that activate the C-C p bond and the B-N s bond simultaneously.
Keller LR,Simon J
Preference Functions for Spatial Risk Analysis.
Risk Anal. 2017 Sep 07;
When outcomes are defined over a geographic region, measures of spatial risk regarding these outcomes can be more complex than traditional measures of risk. One of the main challenges is the need for a cardinal preference function that incorporates the spatial nature of the outcomes. We explore preference conditions that will yield the existence of spatial measurable value and utility functions, and discuss their application to spatial risk analysis. We also present a simple example on household freshwater usage across regions to demonstrate how such functions can be assessed and applied.
Lin CY,Chen F,Hariri A,Chen CJ,Wilder-Smith P,Takesh T,Jokerst JV
Photoacoustic Imaging for Noninvasive Periodontal Probing Depth Measurements.
J Dent Res. 2017 Sep 01;:22034517729820
The periodontal probe is the gold standard tool for periodontal examinations, including probing depth measurements, but is limited by systematic and random errors. Here, we used photoacoustic ultrasound for high-spatial resolution imaging of probing depths. Specific contrast from dental pockets was achieved with food-grade cuttlefish ink as a contrast medium. Here, 39 porcine teeth (12 teeth with artificially deeper pockets) were treated with the contrast agent, and the probing depths were measured with novel photoacoustic imaging and a Williams periodontal probe. There were statistically significant differences between the 2 measurement approaches for distal, lingual, and buccal sites but not mesial. Bland-Altman analysis revealed that all bias values were < ±0.25 mm, and the coefficients of variation for 5 replicates were
Rook KS,Charles ST
Close social ties and health in later life: Strengths and vulnerabilities.
Am Psychol. 2017 Sep;72(6):567-577
The world is aging at an unprecedented rate, with older adults representing the fastest-growing segment of the population in most economically developed and developing countries. This demographic shift leaves much uncharted territory for researchers who study social relationships and health. Social relationships exert powerful influences on physical health in later adulthood, a critical consideration given age-related increases in the prevalence of chronic health conditions and physical disability. A large body of research indicates that older adults report greater satisfaction with their social networks than do younger adults, and that they often take measures to minimize their exposure to negative social encounters. These emotionally satisfying and generally positive social ties afford some health protection against a backdrop of mounting physical limitations and play an important role when juxtaposed with the potentially health-damaging frictions that sometimes emerge in older adults' social relationships. Although most older adults report that they are satisfied with their social ties, some older adults experience frequent conflicts or ambivalent exchanges with members of their social networks, and these experiences detract from their health. In addition, many older adults will experience the loss of one or more close relationships during the course of their lives, with ramifications for their health and, often, for the reorganization of their social lives over time. Understanding how both the strengths and vulnerabilities of close social relationships affect health and well-being in later life is an important goal, particularly in view of the accelerating rate of population aging worldwide. (PsycINFO Database Record
Campos B,Kim HS
Incorporating the cultural diversity of family and close relationships into the study of health.
Am Psychol. 2017 Sep;72(6):543-554
Relationships are at the center of the human social environment, and their quality and longevity are now recognized to have particular relevance for health. The goal of this article is to bring attention to the role of culture in how relationships, particularly close relationships and family relationships, influence health. To this end, 2 contexts that are characterized by 2 distinct forms of cultural collectivism (East Asian and Latino) are spotlighted to highlight the unique patterns that underlie broader cultural categories (e.g., collectivism). In addition, related research on other understudied cultures and nonethnic or nonnational forms of culture (e.g., social class, religion) is also discussed. The review centers on social support, a key pathway through which relationships shape psychological and physical health, as the psychological process that has received the most empirical attention in this area. Overall, it is clear that new and more systematic approaches are needed to generate a more comprehensive, novel, and inclusive understanding of the role of culture in relationship processes that shape health. Three recommendations are offered for researchers and professionals to generate and incorporate knowledge of culture-specific relationship processes into their understanding of health. (PsycINFO Database Record
Claimon A,Suh M,Cheon GJ,Lee DS,Kim EE,Chung JK
Bilateral Renal Metastasis of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer with Discordant Uptake Between I-131 Sodium Iodide and F-18 FDG.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017 Sep;51(3):256-260
Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by (131)I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in (18)F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC. The patient received two sessions of 200 mCi (131)I therapy within 6 months duration. There was complete treatment response as evaluated by the second post-therapeutic (131)I SPECT/CT and serum thyroglobulin. To our knowledge, renal metastasis from HCTC with positive (131)I but negative (18)F-FDG uptake has not been reported in the literature. This case suggests that (131)I SPECT/CT is useful for lesion localization and prediction of (131)I therapy response.
Hausmann S,Ye J,Aoki T,Zheng JG,Stahn J,Bern F,Chen B,Autieri C,Sanyal B,Esquinazi PD,Böni P,Paul A
Atomic-scale engineering of ferroelectric-ferromagnetic interfaces of epitaxial perovskite films for functional properties.
Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 06;7(1):10734
Besides epitaxial mismatch that can be accommodated by lattice distortions and/or octahedral rotations, ferroelectric-ferromagnetic interfaces are affected by symmetry mismatch and subsequent magnetic ordering. Here, we have investigated La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 (LSMO) samples with varying underlying unit cells (uc) of BaTiO3 (BTO) layer on (001) and (110) oriented substrates in order to elucidate the role of symmetry mismatch. Lattice mismatch for 3?uc of BTO and symmetry mismatch for 10?uc of BTO, both associated with local MnO6 octahedral distortions of the (001) LSMO within the first few uc, are revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, we find exchange bias along the in-plane / directions only for the (001) oriented samples. Polarized neutron reflectivity measurements confirm the existence of a layer with zero net moment only within (001) oriented samples. First principle density functional calculations show that even though the bulk ground state of LSMO is ferromagnetic, a large lattice constant together with an excess of La can stabilize an antiferromagnetic LaMnO3-type phase at the interface region and explain the experimentally observed exchange bias. Atomic scale tuning of MnO6 octahedra can thus be made possible via symmetry mismatch at heteroepitaxial interfaces. This aspect can act as a vital parameter for structure-driven control of physical properties.
Wodarz D,Goel A,Boland CR,Komarova NL
Effect of aspirin on tumour cell colony formation and evolution.
J R Soc Interface. 2017 Sep;14(134)
Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin. The calculations indicate that aspirin increases the probability that a single tumour cell fails to clonally expand. Further, calculations suggest that aspirin increases the evolutionary potential of an expanding tumour cell colony. An aspirin-treated tumour cell population is predicted to result in the accumulation of more mutations (and is thus more virulent and more difficult to treat) than a cell population of the same size that grew without aspirin. This indicates a potential trade-off between delaying the onset of cancer and increasing its evolutionary potential through chemoprevention. Further work needs to investigate to what extent these findings apply to in vivo settings, and to what degree they contribute to the epidemiologically documented aspirin-mediated protection.
Marques AR,Yang X,Smith AA,Zhuang X,Turk SP,Williams CD,Law MA,Barbour AG,Pal U
Citrate anticoagulant improves the sensitivity of Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi plasma culture.
J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Sep 06;
The ability of cultivating Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi is a cornerstone of Lyme disease research.….
Baltzell LS,Srinivasan R,Richards VM
The effect of prior knowledge and intelligibility on the cortical entrainment response to speech.
J Neurophysiol. 2017 Sep 06;:jn.00023.2017
It has been suggested that cortical entrainment plays an important role in speech perception by helping to parse the acoustic stimulus into discrete linguistic units (Giraud & Poeppel, 2012). However, the question of whether the entrainment response to speech depends on the intelligibility of the stimulus remains open. Studies addressing this question of intelligibility have, for the most part, significantly distorted the acoustic properties of the stimulus to degrade the intelligibility of the speech stimulus, making it difficult to compare across "intelligible" and "unintelligible" conditions. To avoid these acoustic confounds, we follow Millman et al. (2015) and use priming to manipulate the intelligibility of vocoded speech. We use EEG to measure the entrainment response to vocoded target sentences that are preceded by natural-speech (non-vocoded) prime sentences that are either valid (match the target) or invalid (do not match the target). For unintelligible speech, valid primes have the effect of restoring intelligibility (Remez et al., 1980). We compared the effect of priming on the entrainment response for both 3-channel (unintelligible) and 16-channel (intelligible) speech (Loizou et al., 1999). We observed a main effect of priming, suggesting that the entrainment response depends on prior knowledge, but not a main effect of vocoding (16-channel vs. 3-channel). Furthermore, we found no difference in the effect of priming on the entrainment response to 3-channel and 16-channel vocoded speech, suggesting that for vocoded speech entrainment response does not depend on intelligibility.
Tognini P,Murakami M,Liu Y,Eckel-Mahan KL,Newman JC,Verdin E,Baldi P,Sassone-Corsi P
Distinct Circadian Signatures in Liver and Gut Clocks Revealed by Ketogenic Diet.
Cell Metab. 2017 Sep 05;26(3):523-538.e5
The circadian clock orchestrates rhythms in physiology and behavior, allowing organismal adaptation to daily environmental changes. While food intake profoundly influences diurnal rhythms in the liver, how nutritional challenges are differentially interpreted by distinct tissue-specific clocks remains poorly explored. Ketogenic diet (KD) is considered to have metabolic and therapeutic value, though its impact on circadian homeostasis is virtually unknown. We show that KD has profound and differential effects on liver and intestine clocks. Specifically, the amplitude of clock-controlled genes and BMAL1 chromatin recruitment are drastically altered by KD in the liver, but not in the intestine. KD induces nuclear accumulation of PPARa in both tissues but with different circadian phase. Also, gut and liver clocks respond differently to carbohydrate supplementation to KD. Importantly, KD induces serum and intestinal ß-hydroxyl-butyrate levels to robustly oscillate in a circadian manner, an event coupled to tissue-specific cyclic histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and histone acetylation.
Juo YY,Mantha A,Ebrahimi R,Ziaeian B,Benharash P
Incidence of Myocardial Infarction After High-Risk Vascular Operations in Adults.
JAMA Surg. 2017 Sep 06;:e173360
Advances in perioperative cardiac management and an increase in the number of endovascular procedures have made significant contributions to patients and postoperative myocardial infarction (POMI) risk following high-risk vascular procedures. Whether these changes have translated into real-world improvements in POMI incidence remain unknown.