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Ogunseitan OA
Pollution: US coal plans flout mercury convention.
Nature. 2017 Aug 30;548(7669):523
PMID: 28858306

Ghahremani-Ghajar M,Jin A,Borghei P,Chen JLT
An unusual case of an irretrievable hemodialysis catheter in a patient with end stage renal disease.
Hemodial Int. 2017 Aug 30;
Hemodialysis catheters are associated with higher risks of complications compared to arteriovenous fistulas and grafts. Some common complications of dialysis catheters include infection, thrombus formation, central venous stenosis, and mechanical dysfunction. Rarely, catheters can become firmly adhered to a vessel wall. Catheter adhesion is a serious complication that can impact the delivery of safe and effective dialysis to affected patients. Adherent catheters commonly present insidiously with no overt diagnostic signs and symptoms or antecedent catheter malfunction. Prognosis is variable, but can be potentially fatal depending on the severity of adhesion, and sequelae of complications. There are no standardized methods of therapy and treatment strategies are anecdotally reported by interventional radiology, vascular, and cardiothoracic surgery. We hereby describe a case of hemodialysis catheter that has become firmly embedded within the superior vena cava wall. We review the available literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, long-term sequelae, and known management strategies of adherent catheters. The development of preventative measures will be of great importance given serious complications and limited treatment options. Clinical awareness and understanding of this rare condition is imperative to the prevention and management of adherent catheters.
PMID: 28857418

Newkirk DA,Chen YY,Chien R,Zeng W,Biesinger J,Flowers E,Kawauchi S,Santos R,Calof AL,Lander AD,Xie X,Yokomori K
The effect of Nipped-B-like (Nipbl) haploinsufficiency on genome-wide cohesin binding and target gene expression: modeling Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017;9:89
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder frequently associated with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of Nipped-B-like (NIPBL), the human homolog of Drosophila Nipped-B. NIPBL loads cohesin onto chromatin. Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion important for mitosis but is also increasingly recognized as a regulator of gene expression. In CdLS patient cells and animal models, expression changes of multiple genes with little or no sister chromatid cohesion defect suggests that disruption of gene regulation underlies this disorder. However, the effect of NIPBL haploinsufficiency on cohesin binding, and how this relates to the clinical presentation of CdLS, has not been fully investigated. Nipbl haploinsufficiency causes CdLS-like phenotype in mice. We examined genome-wide cohesin binding and its relationship to gene expression using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nipbl+/- mice that recapitulate the CdLS phenotype.
PMID: 28855971

Aleph Prieto G
Abnormalities of Dopamine D3 Receptor Signaling in the Diseased Brain.
J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2017;9:1179573517726335
Dopamine D3 receptors (D3R) modulate neuronal activity in several brain regions including cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. A growing body of evidence suggests that aberrant D3R signaling contributes to multiple brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, schizophrenia, and addiction. In line with these findings, D3R has emerged as a potential target in the treatment of neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal D3R signaling are poorly understood, either in healthy or diseased brain. Here, I review the molecular mechanisms involved in D3R signaling via monomeric D3R and heteromeric receptor complexes (e.g., D3R-D1R, D3R-D2R, D3R-A2aR, and D3R-D3nf). I focus on D3R signaling pathways that, according to recent reports, contribute to pathological brain states. In particular, I describe evidence on both quantitative (e.g., increased number or affinity) and qualitative (e.g., switched signaling) changes in D3R that has been associated with brain dysfunction. I conclude with a description of basic mechanisms that modulate D3R signaling such as desensitization, as disruption of these mechanisms may underlie pathological changes in D3R signaling. Because several lines of evidence support the idea that imbalances in D3R signaling alter neural function, a better understanding of downstream D3R pathways is likely to reveal novel therapeutic strategies toward dopamine-related brain disorders.
PMID: 28855798

Baglietto-Vargas D,Snchez-Mejias E,Navarro V,Jimenez S,Trujillo-Estrada L,Gmez-Arboledas A,Snchez-Mico M,Snchez-Varo R,Vizuete M,Dvila JC,Garca-Verdugo JM,Vitorica J,Gutierrez A
Dual roles of A in proliferative processes in an amyloidogenic model of Alzheimer's disease.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 30;7(1):10085
Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder that leads to severe cognitive deficits in the elderly population. Over the past two decades, multiple studies have focused on elucidating the causative factors underlying memory defects in Alzheimer's patients. In this regard, new evidence linking Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and neuronal stem cells suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis impairment is an important factor underlying these cognitive deficits. However, because of conflicting results, the impact of A pathology on neurogenesis/gliogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of A on neuronal and glial proliferation by using an APP/PS1 transgenic model and in vitro assays. Specifically, we showed that neurogenesis is affected early in the APP/PS1 hippocampus, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the proliferative activity due to a reduced number of both radial glia-like neural stem cells (type-1 cells) and intermediate progenitor cells (type-2 cells). Moreover, we demonstrated that soluble A from APP/PS1 mice impairs neuronal cell proliferation using neurosphere cultures. On the other hand, we showed that oligomeric A stimulates microglial proliferation, whereas no effect was observed on astrocytes. These findings indicate that A has a differential effect on hippocampal proliferative cells by inhibiting neuronal proliferation and triggering the formation of microglial cells.
PMID: 28855626

Vozella V,Basit A,Misto A,Piomelli D
Age-dependent changes in nervonic acid-containing sphingolipids in mouse hippocampus.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Aug 27;
Sphingolipids have been implicated in age-related neurodegeneration. Previous studies have reported elevated ceramide levels in the brain of old rodents, but a systematic investigation of the impact of age on brain sphingolipid metabolism is still lacking. Here we quantified 17 key sphingolipid species in the hippocampus of young (3months), middle-aged (12months) and old (21months) male and female mice. Lipids were extracted and quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; transcription of enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis was evaluated by qPCR. Age-dependent changes of multiple sphingolipid species - including ceramide (d18:1/18:0), sphingomyelin (d34:1), hexosylceramide (d18:1/16:0), ceramide (d18:1/24:0) - were found in mice of both sexes. Moreover, sex-dependent changes were seen with hexosylceramide (d18:1/18:0), ceramide (d18:1/22:0), sphingomyelin (d36:1) and sphingomyelin (d42:1). Importantly, an age-dependent accumulation of sphingolipids containing nervonic acid (24:1) was observed in 21month-old male (p=0.04) and female mice (p
PMID: 28855145

Eatough Jones M,Kabashima J,Eskalen A,Dimson M,Mayorquin JS,Carrillo JD,Hanlon CC,Paine TD
Evaluations of Insecticides and Fungicides for Reducing Attack Rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea Sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Infested Landscape Trees in California.
J Econ Entomol. 2017 Aug 01;110(4):1611-1618
A recently discovered ambrosia beetle with the proposed common name of polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is reported to attack >200 host tree species in southern California, including many important native and urban landscape trees. This invasive beetle, along with its associated fungi, causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including sycamore (Platanus racemosa Nutt.). Due to the severity of the impact of this Euwallacea sp., short-term management tools must include chemical control options for the arboriculture industry and private landowners to protect trees. We examined the effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations for controlling continued Euwallacea sp. attacks on previously infested sycamore trees which were monitored for 6?mo after treatment. Pesticide combinations were generally more effective than single pesticide treatments. The combination of a systemic insecticide (emamectin benzoate), a contact insecticide (bifenthrin), and a fungicide (metconazole) provided some level of control when applied on moderate and heavily infested trees. The biological fungicide Bacillus subtilis provided short-term control. There was no difference in the performance of the three triazole fungicides (propiconazole, tebuconazole, and metconazole) included in this study. Although no pesticide combination provided substantial control over time, pesticide treatments may be more effective when trees are treated during early stages of attack by this ambrosia beetle.
PMID: 28854652

Vargas RI,Souder SK,Morse JG,Grafton-Cardwell EE,Haviland DR,Kabashima JN,Faber BA,Mackey B,Nkomo E,Cook PJ,Stark JD
Chemical Degradation of TMR Multilure Dispensers for Fruit Fly Detection Weathered Under California Climatic Conditions.
J Econ Entomol. 2017 Aug 01;110(4):1495-1500
Degradation models for multilure fruit fly trap dispensers were analyzed to determine their potential for use in large California detection programs. Solid three-component male lure TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) dispensers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide placed inside Jackson traps were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five citrus-growing areas. Additionally, TMR wafers without DDVP, but with an insecticidal strip, were compared to TMR dispensers with DDVP. Weathered dispensers were sampled weekly and chemically analyzed. Percent loss of TML, the male lure for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Mediterranean fruit fly; ME, the male lure for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly; RK, the male lure for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly; and DDVP was measured. Based on regression analyses for the male lures, TML degraded the fastest followed by ME. Degradation of the more chemically stable RK was discontinuous, did not fit a regression model, but followed similar seasonal patterns. There were few location differences for all three male lures and DDVP. Dispensers degraded faster during summer than winter. An asymptotic regression model provided a good fit for % loss (ME, TML, and DDVP) for summer data. Degradation of DDVP in TMR dispensers was similar to degradation of DDVP in insecticidal strips. Based on these chemical analyses and prior bioassay results with wild flies, TMR dispensers could potentially be used in place of three individual male lure traps, reducing costs of fruit fly survey programs. Use of an insecticidal tape would not require TMR dispensers without DDVP to be registered with US-EPA.
PMID: 28854647

LaGrandeur RG,Tran M,Merchant C,Uy C
Transfusion-related acute lung injury following PDA ligation in a preterm neonate.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2017 Aug 23;
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of blood product transfusion characterized by sudden onset hypoxemic respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema developing within 6 hours of transfusion. It is believed to be under-recognized, particularly among preterm neonates in whom co-existing developmental lung disease adds diagnostic complexity. Here we report the case of a preterm neonate who developed TRALI during a blood transfusion following PDA ligation.
PMID: 28854506

Geraldino-Pardilla L,Giles JT,Sokolove J,Zartoshti A,Robinson WH,Budoff M,Detrano R,Bokhari S,Bathon JM
Association of Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies With Coronary Artery Calcification in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017 Aug;69(8):1276-1281
Citrullinated proteins have been found within atherosclerotic plaque. However, studies evaluating the association between anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and imaging measures of atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been limited to seroreactive citrullinated fibrinogen or citrullinated vimentin and have rendered contradictory results. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate this association using an extended panel of ACPAs in a larger sample of RA patients without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD).
PMID: 27696777

Amber KT,Lamberts A,Solimani F,Agnoletti AF,Didona D,Euverman I,Cozzani E,Yueh LH,Di Zenzo G,Leshem YA,Mimouni D,Hertl M,Horvath B
Determining the Incidence of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients With Autoimmune Blistering Diseases Not Receiving Routine Prophylaxis.
JAMA Dermatol. 2017 Aug 30;
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially lethal opportunistic infection that primary prophylaxis can help prevent. The risk of prophylactic therapy must be weighed against the incidence of PCP in the patient population. Prophylaxis most frequently involves trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with second-line therapies, including atovaquone, dapsone, and pentamide. The indication for prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients without HIV is less well defined. Previously, an incidence of at least 3.5% has been proposed as a cutoff to justify prophylaxis.
PMID: 28854309

Moreno AR,Martiny AC
Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton.
Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2017 Aug 30;
Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
PMID: 28853998

Truex NL,Nowick JS
Transmembrane Proteins: Amyloids Hidden in Plain Sight?
Biochemistry. 2017 Aug 30;
PMID: 28853555

Madaline T,Nori P,Mowrey W,Zukowski E,Gohil S,Sarwar U,Weston G,Urrely R,Palombelli M,Pierino VF,Parsons V,Ehrlich A,Ostrowsky B,Corpuz M,Pirofski LA
Bundle in the Bronx: Impact of a Transition-of-Care Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Bundle on All-Cause 30-Day Hospital Readmissions.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(2):ofx097
A streamlined transition from inpatient to outpatient care can decrease 30-day readmissions. Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs have not reduced readmissions; an OPAT bundle has been suggested to improve outcomes. We implemented a transition-of-care (TOC) OPAT bundle and assessed the effects on all-cause, 30-day hospital readmission.
PMID: 28852672

Burk DL
Beyond abstraction: applying the brakes to runaway patent ineligibility.
J Law Biosci. 2016 Dec;3(3):697-703
PMID: 28852550

Saks MJ,Albright T,Bohan TL,Bierer BE,Bowers CM,Bush MA,Bush PJ,Casadevall A,Cole SA,Denton MB,Diamond SS,Dioso-Villa R,Epstein J,Faigman D,Faigman L,Fienberg SE,Garrett BL,Giannelli PC,Greely HT,Imwinkelried E,Jamieson A,Kafadar K,Kassirer JP,Koehler J',Korn D,Mnookin J,Morrison AB,Murphy E,Peerwani N,Peterson JL,Risinger DM,Sensabaugh GF,Spiegelman C,Stern H,Thompson WC,Wayman JL,Zabell S,Zumwalt RE
Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims.
J Law Biosci. 2016 Dec;3(3):538-575
Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification-highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications-highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence.
PMID: 28852538

Zhang S,Li T,Zhang L,Wang X,Dong H,Li L,Fu D,Li Y,Zi X,Liu HM,Zhang Y,Xu H,Jin CY
A novel chalcone derivative S17 induces apoptosis through ROS dependent DR5 up-regulation in gastric cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9873
A new series of etherification chalcone derivatives were designed and synthesized through Willimison etherification and Claisen-Schmidt condensation. Among them, compound 2-c which was given chemical name of S17, has been successfully screened out as the most potent one on gastric cancer cell line(MGC803) through the investigation for their effects against the growth of five cancer cell lines (EC109, HepG2, MCF7, MGC803, SKNSH). S17 exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity on other two gastric cancer cells (HGC27 and SGC7901), but less cytotoxicity to non-malignant gastric epithelial cells GES1. S17 potently killed gastric cancer cells with causing modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of caspase 9/3 cascade. S17 also up-regulated DR5 expression and DR5 knockdown partially reversed S17-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and MMP decrease. S17 robustly induced generation of ROS with Keap/Nrf2 pathway activated and the application of ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) completely blocked these effects by S17 in MGC803 cells. Intraperitoneal administration of S17 significantly inhibited the growth of MGC803 cells in vivo in a xenograft mouse model without observed toxicity. These results indicated that S17 is a leadbrominated chalcone derivate and deserves further investigation for prevention and treatment of gastric cancer.
PMID: 28852176

Wu C,Ma K,Zhang D,Wu J,Xiong S,Luo G,Zhang J,Chen F,Shen Q,Zhang L,Lavernia EJ
Precipitation phenomena in Al-Zn-Mg alloy matrix composites reinforced with B4C particles.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9589
To provide insight into precipitation phenomena in age-hardening Al-Zn-Mg(-Cu) matrix composites, an Al 7075 alloy composite reinforced with B4C particles was selected as a model system. The bulk composites were fabricated via plasma activated sintering and followed by a peak aged (T6) heat treatment. Two types of Al matrix zones were identified in the composite: (1) the regions in the vicinity of the matrix/reinforcement interface, defined as "matrix plastic zone" (MPZ) hereafter, and (2) the regions away from the matrix/reinforcement interface, simply defined as matrix hereafter. The precipitation behavior in the MPZ was characterized and compared to that in the matrix. The MPZ contained a high density of dislocations. The number density of GP zones in the MPZ is lower than that in the matrix while the average size of the GP zones in MPZ is coarser. In addition, semi-coherent platelet η' precipitates were observed but only in the MPZ. The dislocations and the Al/B4C interfaces provide more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the η' precipitates in the MPZ. The growth and coarsening of the η' precipitates caused rapid depletion of Mg and Zn solute atoms in the MPZ.
PMID: 28852113

Versteeg K,Menicucci AR,Woolsey C,Mire CE,Geisbert JB,Cross RW,Agans KN,Jeske D,Messaoudi I,Geisbert TW
Infection with the Makona variant results in a delayed and distinct host immune response compared to previous Ebola virus variants.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9730
Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) continues to pose a significant threat to human health as highlighted by the recent epidemic that originated in West Africa and the ongoing outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Although the ZEBOV variant responsible for this epidemic (Makona) shares significant genetic similarity with previously identified variants (Kikwit and Mayinga), recent reports suggest slower disease progression in nonhuman primates. However, the pathogenesis caused by the new variant is not fully understood. We present the first comprehensive approach in understanding ZEBOV-Makona pathogenesis in cynomolgus macaques by measuring changes in immune cell frequencies, plasma levels of immune mediators, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) within whole blood (WB) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our combined approach revealed a link between: 1) increased interferon-stimulated gene expression, IFNα levels, and activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells; 2) higher proinflammatory gene expression, cytokine and chemokine levels, and non-classical monocytes; 3) gene signature of leukocyte activation and increased granulocytes; and 4) decreased expression of lymphocyte related genes and lymphopenia. In addition, our data strongly indicate delayed disease progression as well as limited overlap (~30%) in host transcriptome changes following ZEBOV-Makona infection compared to ZEBOV-Kikwit. These observations provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of ZEBOV-Makona pathogenesis.
PMID: 28852031

Pickering H,Teng A,Faal N,Joof H,Makalo P,Cassama E,Nabicassa M,Last AR,Burr SE,Rowland-Jones SL,Thomson NR,Roberts CH,Mabey DCW,Bailey RL,Hayward RD,de la Maza LM,Holland MJ
Genome-wide profiling of humoral immunity and pathogen genes under selection identifies immune evasion tactics of Chlamydia trachomatis during ocular infection.
Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9634
The frequency and duration of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) ocular infections decrease with age, suggesting development of partial immunity. However, there is a lack of clear correlates of immunity to Ct infection in humans. We screened sera from a cohort of Gambian children followed for six-months against a Ct-proteome microarray. At genome sequence level, we detected signatures of selection from a population of ocular Ct isolates from Guinea-Bissau. Together these approaches allowed us to highlight the focus of humoral responses and hypothesise new modes of pathogen immune evasion. Children who were susceptible to frequent and/or prolonged Ct infection had a less focussed antibody response, including preferential recognition of forty-two antigens. There was evidence of positive and purifying selection across the genome, but little balancing selection. In contrast, most antigens that were associated with susceptibility were under neutral selection. These data suggest an evasion strategy in which Ct presents a large panel of irrelevant antigens to the immune system to block or misdirect protective responses. Development of a focused immune response, possibly induced through vaccination, may be an effective strategy to promote protection to Ct infection.
PMID: 28851925

Keohane LM,Grebla RC,Rahman M,Mukamel DB,Lee Y,Mor V,Trivedi A
First-dollar cost-sharing for skilled nursing facility care in medicare advantage plans.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2017 Aug 29;17(1):611
The initial days of a Medicare-covered skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay may have no cost-sharing or daily copayments depending on beneficiaries' enrollment in traditional Medicare or Medicare Advantage. Some policymakers have advocated imposing first-dollar cost-sharing to reduce post-acute expenditures. We examined the relationship between first-dollar cost-sharing for a SNF stay and use of inpatient and SNF services.
PMID: 28851435

Vandell DL,Burchinal M,Pierce KM
Early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development.
Dev Psychol. 2016 Oct;52(10):1634-1645
Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More experience in center-type care was linked to higher class rank and admission to more selective colleges, and for females to less risk taking and greater impulse control. Higher quality child care predicted higher academic grades and admission to more selective colleges. Fewer hours in child care was related to admission to more selective colleges. These findings suggest long-term benefits of higher quality child care, center-type care, and lower child-care hours for measures of academic standing at the EOHS. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 27690496

Li Y,Yang X,Zhao W
Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.
SLAS Technol. 2017 Aug 01;:2472630317727519
Rapid bacterial identification (ID) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are in great demand due to the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. Conventional culture-based AST methods suffer from a long turnaround time. By necessity, physicians often have to treat patients empirically with antibiotics, which has led to an inappropriate use of antibiotics, an elevated mortality rate and healthcare costs, and antibiotic resistance. Recent advances in miniaturization and automation provide promising solutions for rapid bacterial ID/AST profiling, which will potentially make a significant impact in the clinical management of infectious diseases and antibiotic stewardship in the coming years. In this review, we summarize and analyze representative emerging micro- and nanotechnologies, as well as automated systems for bacterial ID/AST, including both phenotypic (e.g., microfluidic-based bacterial culture, and digital imaging of single cells) and molecular (e.g., multiplex PCR, hybridization probes, nanoparticles, synthetic biology tools, mass spectrometry, and sequencing technologies) methods. We also discuss representative point-of-care (POC) systems that integrate sample processing, fluid handling, and detection for rapid bacterial ID/AST. Finally, we highlight major remaining challenges and discuss potential future endeavors toward improving clinical outcomes with rapid bacterial ID/AST technologies.
PMID: 28850804

Osborn HA,Rathi VK,Tjoa T,Goyal N,Yarlagadda BB,Rich DL,Emerick KS,Lin DT,Deschler DG,Durand ML
Risk factors for thirty-day readmission following flap reconstruction of oncologic defects of the head and neck.
Laryngoscope. 2017 Aug 29;
Unplanned 30-day readmission rate following hospital discharge is an important metric of healthcare quality. This study sought to characterize the rate, risk factors, and common causes of readmission in head and neck cancer patients following free or pedicled flap reconstruction.
PMID: 28850725

Cruz M,Bender M,Ombao H
A robust interrupted time series model for analyzing complex health care intervention data.
Stat Med. 2017 Aug 29;
Current health policy calls for greater use of evidence-based care delivery services to improve patient quality and safety outcomes. Care delivery is complex, with interacting and interdependent components that challenge traditional statistical analytic techniques, in particular, when modeling a time series of outcomes data that might be "interrupted" by a change in a particular method of health care delivery. Interrupted time series (ITS) is a robust quasi-experimental design with the ability to infer the effectiveness of an intervention that accounts for data dependency. Current standardized methods for analyzing ITS data do not model changes in variation and correlation following the intervention. This is a key limitation since it is plausible for data variability and dependency to change because of the intervention. Moreover, present methodology either assumes a prespecified interruption time point with an instantaneous effect or removes data for which the effect of intervention is not fully realized. In this paper, we describe and develop a novel robust interrupted time series (robust-ITS) model that overcomes these omissions and limitations. The robust-ITS model formally performs inference on (1) identifying the change point; (2) differences in preintervention and postintervention correlation; (3) differences in the outcome variance preintervention and postintervention; and (4) differences in the mean preintervention and postintervention. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing patient satisfaction data from a hospital that implemented and evaluated a new nursing care delivery model as the intervention of interest. The robust-ITS model is implemented in an R Shiny toolbox, which is freely available to the community.
PMID: 28850683

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